Aquamarine (from Latin: aqua marina, “sea water) is a blue or cyan variety of beryl. It occurs at most localities which yield ordinary beryl. The gem-gravel placer deposits of Sri Lanka contain aquamarine. Green-yellow beryl, such as that occurring in Brazil, is sometimes called chrysolite aquamarineThe deep blue version of aquamarine is called maxixe. Maxixe is commonly found in the country of Madagascar. Its color fades to white when exposed to sunlight or is subjected to heat treatment, though the color returns with irradiation.
The pale blue color of aquamarine is attributed to Fe2+. Fe3+ ions produce golden-yellow color, and when both Fe2+ and Fe3+ are present, the color is a darker blue as in maxixe. Decoloration of maxixe by light or heat thus may be due to the charge transfer between Fe3+ and Fe2+Dark-blue maxixe color can be produced in green, pink or yellow beryl by irradiating it with high-energy particles (gamma rays, neutrons or even X-rays).
The largest aquamarine of gemstone quality ever mined was found in Marambaia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in 1910. It weighed over 110 kg (243 lb), and its dimensions were 48.5 cm (19 in) long and 42 cm (16 12 12 12 12 12 12 in) in diameter. The largest cut aquamarine gem is the Dom Pedro Aquamarine, now housed in the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History.
The ancient Romans believed that aquamarine would protect against any dangers while travelling at sea, and that it provided energy and cured laziness.
They are useful healing crystals for you to use to help to relieve stress as they will also aid you to reduce the tension around a specific issue.
In the United States, aquamarines can be found at the summit of Mt. Antero in the Sawatch Range in central Colorado. In Wyoming, aquamarine has been discovered in the Big Horn Mountains, near Powder River Pass. Another location within the United States is the Sawtooth Range near Stanley, Idaho, although the minerals are within a wilderness area which prevents collecting. In Brazil, there are mines in the states of Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo, and Bahia, and minorly in Rio Grande do Norte. The mines of Colombia, Zambia, Madagascar, malawi, Tanzania and Kenya also produce aquamarine.
These lovely stones are powerful to assist self healing, and they have strong metaphysical properties that help you to let go of old emotional issues you may be holding on to.


Alexandrites have two primary value drivers. First, the closer the colors to pure green and red, the higher the value. Second, the more distinct the color change, the higher the value. Alexandrites can exhibit everything from 100% to just 5% color change. Thus, the most valuable gems would have a 100% color shift from pure green to pure red. Blue-greens and purplish or brownish reds hold less value.
This connection to the Czars likely helped the gem gain prestige by association. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, as historian David Cannadine note, the Czars were widely considered the standard for royal pomp. (More recently, the British Royal Family has enjoyed this position). A combination of beauty, celebrity, and rarity helped create a mystique around this gem in the public imagination.
By the 1950s, alexandrite joined the list of birthstones as the modern alternative to June’s traditional pearl.
If not for alexandrite’s popular associations, the circumstances necessary for its formation, combined with its mining history, might have ensured the gem would be little known as well as extremely rare. To form, alexandrite requires both beryllium (Be), one of the rarest elements on Earth, and chromium (Cr). (Emerald also requires these two elements). However, Be and Cr rarely occur in the same rocks or in geological conditions where they interact. Furthermore, the original source of alexandrites was almost exhausted after only a few decades of mining.
Since the 1980s, more sources have emerged. Nevertheless, alexandrite remains one of the rarest gemstones.
Clarity also plays a significant role in grading. As is the case with a majority of gems, most naturally occurring alexandrite isn’t clean, facetable material. Most is best suited for cabbing. However, an alexandrite’s color change has more effect on its value than its clarity. For example, take two alexandrites of equal size. One gem is eye clean, with a 50% greenish blue to brownish red color change. The other is an opaque cabochon with a 100% green to red color change. The opaque cab would be considered more valuable.
Alexandrite was discovered in the Ural Mountains of Russia in the 1830s. Noted mineralogist Nils Gustaf Nordenskiod was the first to realize this unusual green, color-changing gemstone was something new. In 1834, Count Lev Alekseevich Perovskii named the stone in honor of the then future Czar of Russia, Alexander II.


Amethyst is a violet variety of quartz.
The name comes from the Koine Greek ἀμέθυστος amethystos from ἀ- a-, "not" and μεθύσκω methysko / μεθύω methyo, "intoxicate", a reference to the belief that the stone protected its owner from drunkenness. The ancient Greeks wore amethyst and carved drinking vessels from it in the belief that it would prevent intoxication.
Amethyst is a semiprecious stone often used in jewelry and is the traditional birthstone for February. 
Amethyst is a purple variety of quartz (SiO2) and owes its violet color to irradiation, impurities of iron and in some cases other transition metals, and the presence of other trace elements, which result in complex crystal lattice substitutions.The hardness of the mineral is the same as quartz, thus making it suitable for use in jewelry.
Amethyst occurs in primary hues from a light pinkish violet to a deep purple. Amethyst may exhibit one or both secondary hues, red and blue. The best varieties of amethyst can be found in Siberia, Sri Lanka, Brazil and the far East. The ideal grade is called "Deep Siberian" and has a primary purple hue of around 75–80%, with 15–20% blue and (depending on the light source) red secondary hues. ‘Rose de France’ is defined by its markedly light shade of the purple, reminiscent of a lavender/lilac shade. These pale colors, were once considered undesirable but have recently become popular due to intensive marketing.
Green quartz is sometimes incorrectly called green amethyst, which is a misnomer and not an appropriate name for the material, the proper terminology being prasiolite. Other names for green quartz are vermarine or lime citrine.
Of very variable intensity, the color of amethyst is often laid out in stripes parallel to the final faces of the crystal. One aspect in the art of lapidary involves correctly cutting the stone to place the color in a way that makes the tone of the finished gem homogeneous. Often, the fact that sometimes only a thin surface layer of violet color is present in the stone or that the color is not homogeneous makes for a difficult cutting.
The color of amethyst has been demonstrated to result from substitution by irradiation of trivalent iron (Fe3+) for silicon in the structure, in the presence of trace elements of large ionic radius, and, to a certain extent, the amethyst color can naturally result from displacement of transition elements even if the iron concentration is low. Natural amethyst is dichroic in reddish violet and bluish violet, but when heated, turns yellow-orange, yellow-brown, or dark brownish and may resemble citrine, but loses its dichroism, unlike genuine citrine. When partially heated, amethyst can result in ametrine.
Amethyst can fade in tone if overexposed to light sources and can be artificially darkened with adequate irradiation.
Synthetic Amethyst
Synthetic (laboratory-grown) amethyst is produced by a synthesis method called hydrothermal growth, which grows the crystals inside a high-pressure autoclave.
Synthetic amethyst is made to imitate the best quality amethyst. Its chemical and physical properties are the same to that of natural amethyst and it can not be differentiated with absolute certainty without advanced gemmological testing (which is often cost-prohibitive). There is one test based on "Brazil law twinning" (a form of quartz twinning where right and left hand quartz structures are combined in a single crystal) which can be used to identify synthetic amethyst rather easily. It is possible to synthesize twinned amethyst, but this type is not available in large quantities in the market.
Single-crystal quartz is very desirable in the industry, particularly for keeping the regular vibrations necessary for quartz movements in watches and clocks, which is where a lot of synthetic quartz is used.
Treated amethyst is produced by gamma ray, X-ray or electron beam irradiation of clear quartz (rock crystal) which has been first doped with ferric impurities. On exposure to heat, the irradiation effects can be partially cancelled and amethyst generally becomes yellow or even green, and much of the citrine, cairngorm, or yellow quartz of jewelry is said to be merely "burnt amethyst".


Ametrine, also known as trystine or by its trade name as bolivianite, is a naturally occurring variety of quartz. It is a mixture of amethyst and citrine with zones of purple and yellow or orange. Almost all commercially available ametrine is mined only in Bolivia.
The colour of the zones visible within ametrine are due to differing oxidation states of iron within the crystal. The different oxidation states occur due to there being a temperature gradient across the crystal during its formation.
Artificial ametrine can be created by differential heat treatment of amethyst.
Legend has it that ametrine was first introduced to Europe by a conquistador's gifts to the Spanish Queen, after he received a mine in Bolivia as a dowry when he married a princess from the native Ayoreos tribe.
Most ametrine in the low price segment can be assumed to stem from synthetic material. Since 1994, a Russian laboratory has perfected the industrial production of bicolored quartz crystals that are later irradiated to bring out the typical ametrine colors. Green-yellow or golden-blue ametrine does not exist naturally.


Beryl is a mineral composed of berylium aluminium cyclosilicate with thechemical formula Be3Al2Si6O18. Well-known varieties of beryl include emerald and aquamarine. Naturally occurring, hexagonalcrystals of beryl can be up to several meters in size, but terminated crystals are relatively rare. Pure beryl is colorless, but it is frequently tinted by impurities; possible colors are green, blue, yellow, red (the rarest), and white. Beryl is also an ore source of beryllium.
The name "beryl" is derived (via Latin: beryllus, Old French: beryl, and Middle English: beril) from Greek βήρυλλος beryllos which referred to a "precious blue-green color-of-sea-water stone"; akin to Prakrit verulia, veluriya("beryl"). The term was later adopted for the mineral beryl more exclusively.
When the first eyeglasses were constructed in 13th century Italy, the lenses were made of beryl (or of rock crystal) as glass could not be made clear enough. Consequently, glasses were named Brillen in German (bril in Dutch and Briller in Danish).
Beryl belongs to the hexagonal crystal system. Normally Beryl forms hexagonal columns but can also occur in massive habits. As a cyclosilicate beryl incorporates rings of silicate tetrahedra of  that are arranged in columns along the C axis and as parallel layers perpendicular to the C axis, forming channels along the C axis. These channels permit a variety of ions, neutral atoms, and molecules to be incorporated into the crystal thus disrupting the overall charge of the crystal permitting further substitutions in Aluminium, Silicon, and Beryllium sites in the crystal structure. These impurities give rise to the variety of colors of beryl that can be found. Increasing alkali content within the silicate ring channels causes increases to the refractive indices and birefringence.


However, the word chrysolite has a long history in the gemstone world. The name itself means "gold stone," and over time it has been used to refer to different gemstones, including chrysoberyl, peridot/olivine and topaz. The term Oriental chrysolite was used to refer to yellowish-green sapphire and Ceylon chrysolite was used to refer to olive-green tourmaline. There were also terms like Saxon chrysolite (greenish-yellow topaz), Cape chrysolite (prehnite) and false chrysolite (moldavite).
Chrysolite is mentioned several times in the Bible, in the list of gemstones set in the breastplate of Aaron (Book of Exodus), as well as in the list of foundation stones for the New Jerusalem (in Revelation). Many of the gemstone references in the Bible are somewhat obscure since many gemstone names were used to refer to stones of a particular color rather than specific minerals.
Many scholars believe that chrysolitewas most likely used to refer to the mineral olivine, known in gemology as peridot. Olivine is not itself an official mineral, but is composed of two minerals; fayalite and forsterite. Historically, the most important deposit of peridot was on the volcanic island of Zabargad (St. John) in the Red Sea, east of Aswan, Egypt. This deposit was mined for over 3500 years and was very well known in the ancient world. It has been speculated that many of Cleopatra's famous emeralds were, in fact, peridot gemstones from Zabargad.
Modern peridot sources are Burma, Pakistan, China, Vietnam and the United States. The finest quality peridot has traditionally come from Mogok in Burma, though the Pakistani peridot is now highly regarded as well. The USA was for many years the largest producer of peridot, from major deposits in Arizona. Curiously, peridot has also been found in a meteorite that fell in Siberia in 1749.


Zircon is a zirconium silicate mineral with a chemical composition of ZrSiO4. It is common throughout the world as a minor constituent of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks.
Zircon is a popular gemstone that has been used for nearly 2000 years. It occurs in a wide range of colors and has a brightness and fire that rivals those of diamond. Colorless zircon is sometimes used as a lower-cost alternative for diamond. Zircon should not be confused with cubic zirconia, which is a man-made material.
Zircon is present in most soils and clastic sediments. Zircon-rich sediments are mined and the recovered zircon is used to produce zirconium metal and zirconium dioxide. These are used in a wide variety of manufactured products and industrial processes.
Zircon has been used as a gemstone for over 2000 years. Its very high dispersion and refractive index give it a brilliance and fire that rival those of diamond. For that reason, colorless faceted zircon has been used as both a popular and fraudulent substitute for diamond.
Gemologists and many knowledgeable jewelers are able to distinguish zircon from diamond with a quick examination. To do this they look into the stone, through the table facet, and focus on the pavilion facet junctions, with a 10x loupe. The pavilion facet junctions should appear as double-images caused by zircon's double-refraction. Diamond is singly refractive and will not show doubling of features within the stone. This same test can be used to distinguish zircon from cubic zirconia.
Zircon is a popular gem because it is available in a variety of pleasing colors. Most natural zircons are yellow, red, or brown. Heating and irradiation can be used to produce colorless, blue, green, and many other zircon colors. Blue is the most popular zircon color. About 80% of the zircons sold today are blue.
Although it is not as durable as diamond, zircon has good physical durability as a gem. It has a hardness of 7.5 and imperfect cleavage. That combination makes it suitable for most gemstone uses that include rings, earrings, pendants, brooches and other jewelry. Some zircon, especially gems that have been heat treated, can be brittle. The facet edges of these gems are susceptible to nicks and chipping.
here is much public confusion between four materials: zircon, zirconium, zirconia and cubic zirconia. Summary definitions of these terms are provided below.

Zircon is a naturally occurring mineral with a chemical composition of ZrSiO4.
Zirconium is a silvery white metal and a chemical element. It has an atomic number of 40 and an atomic symbol of Zr.
Zirconia is the white crystalline oxide of zirconium with a chemical composition of ZrO2. A naturally occurring, but rare, form of ZrO2 is the mineral baddeleyite.
Cubic Zirconia is a synthetic gemstone with an appearance that is very similar to diamond. It sells for a tiny fraction of the cost of diamond and has historically been the most commonly used diamond simulant.

All of these materials are related. Zirconium, zirconia and cubic zirconia are all produced from industrial-grade zircon.


 Citrine is the yellow variety of quartz (silicon dioxide, SiO2) family. The coloring agent is iron. Natural citrines are rare. Most commercial citrines are heat-treated amethysts or smoky quartzes. The name comes from the French word citron, meaning lemon. It occurs in proximity to another gemstone in this family, Amethyst and the two can be found mix together. Citrine Can easily be confused with many yellow gemstones, especially apatite, precious beryl, orthoclase, topaz, and tourmaline.
Heat treatment reduces the iron impurities resulting in more golden to orange colour. Therefore almost all citrine on the market today has been heat treated to improve its appearance. The color of citrine, whether treated or not, may fade if exposed to heat or sunlight for prolonged periods.
The beautiful color in your citrine, if properly taken care of, will last indefinitely. Citrine should be protected from sharp blows and scratches but is otherwise quite resistant to normal wear. Citrine can be cleaned with most any commercial jewelry cleaner or mild soap and lukewarm water using a soft brush. Be sure to rinse and dry your jewelry thoroughly after cleaning. Some citrine, whether treated or not, may  fade if exposed to sunlight or heat for long periods of time. Because of this, you should never wear your citrine jewelry while sunbathing or when using a tanning bed. Shop from our secure store or alternatively shop from for citrine jewellery. 

Citrine is believed to be powerful for energizing and recharging, to reverse degenerative disease and to be highly beneficial for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Other properties can stimulate the spleen, pancreas, kidneys and digestion, help eye problems, increase blood circulation and cleansing, activate the thymus and balance the thyroid. It promotes creativity, helps personal clarity, and as an ‘eliminator’ can relieve constipation and self-destructive tendencies. It raises self-esteem and being a stone of abundance.


Amber is one of the few gem materials not technically considered a mineral. Formed from fossilized tree resins 10 million to 100 million years ago, it is classified as an organic gem. Resin has been known to collect insects, moss, lichen, or leaves in its sticky clutches, preserving them in perfect splendour for thousands of years. Therefore it is very likely to find an insect inside the Amber gemstone. Unlike most gemstones, inclusions can add a great deal to the value of amber – especially if these inclusions are plants or insects that have been trapped inside. Being a gemstone of organic origins, amber requires some special but simple care and handling. Amber is a rather soft gemstone and can be easily scratched. It lends itself well to earrings and necklaces where contact with hard objects is minimized. Amber can be confused with citrine, fluorite, meerschaum, onyx marble, and ambroid.
Amber gemstone comes in a wide variety of colors, brown, yellow, red, green, blue, (blues and greens due to strong fluorescence) orange, and white (due to delocalized electrons on organic molecules and impurities.)
The most famous amber comes from the Baltic region, Poland and Russia, it is also found in Dominican Republic, Austria, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Germany, Japan, Mexico, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, United States. You can find our interactive map for gemstone of the world Here.
Amber is sometimes heated to create deeper (darker) colors, or heated in oil to remove cloudiness. Oil-heated amber often contains highly reflective, disc-like inclusions called spangles. Hot needle is used to distinguish amber from synthetics. Real amber will produce smoke that smells a bit like incense, while plastic will melt and show a black mark. 
Final tip for buying an amber jewellery: the fact that there is a fly trapped in the jewellery does not mean you are buying a genuine amber jewellery (plastic imitations also can have flies trapped in them).
A soft, damp cloth may be used for cleaning amber. Amber should never be submitted to steam or ultrasonic cleaning. Avoid alcohol, bleach and all harsh chemicals. Also avoid prolonged exposure to hot water. The safest and best way to clean a piece of jewelry containing amber is with lukewarm water, a very mild soap and a soft brush.Be sure to rinse thoroughly and allow the amber to dry completely before storing the piece in your jewelry box. Store each piece separately so that other jewelry won’t scratch it.
Because amber gets electrified when rubbed, ancient Greeks believed it to be broken pieces of the sun.  There are many myths surrounding the origins of amber. For example, an Athenian historian called Nicias thought that amber was the perspiration of the earth. According to one Greek myth, when Pantheon, son of Apollo, was set on fire by Jupiter for scorching the earth with the chariot of the sun, his sisters turned into poplar trees through grief and wept tears of amber. The Chinese believed amber to be the crystallized spirit of the tiger. According to the ancient Greeks, amber had numerous practical uses. One such use was to mix ground amber with honey and rose oil and use it as a cure for deafness. This was also thought to enhance vision. The Chinese believed that amber embodies courage. Blood amber, a specific type of amber, was also used as an aphrodisiac in China.
It has always been seen as having medicinal properties and throughout history, up until the early 20th century, was used for a wide variety of ailments.

Amber always feels warm when it is touched. When rubbed hard to a piece of clothes it becomes electrified and will pick up small objects such as pieces of paper. This electrical property, together with the insects inside some specimens, made amber a very popular stone to Greek and Romans. In fact, it is from the Greek name for amber that our word electricity derived. 

Amber has been used since prehistoric times for jewellery and religious purposes. The Baltic Amber, is the earliest-used gem material of all. Today, amber gemstone is used in all types of jewellery, including pendants, rings, necklaces, and bracelets.  It should be noted that glass and plastic imitations of amber exist, also, small fragments of amber can be heated up and pressed together (this is called ambroid) to create bigger pieces of amber gemstone. A practical test to recognize a genuine amber is to cut off a small piece of amber and burn it. genuine amber will give off an aromatic smell when burnt. Read a complete guide on how to buy amber jewelry here.

  The Romans had a number of uses for amber as well. If amber was ingested in powdered form or worn around the neck, it was thought to ward off insanity. It was seen as an effective remedy against ague, poisonous drugs, and problems related to tooth loss. There is an account left by Pliny the Elder, where he mentions children wearing amber amulets to stave off evil spirits. Interestingly, Pliny believed that amber originated from the sap of trees and he was correct in this belief. Up until the 17th century, people puzzled over the origins of amber and at one stage attributed it to the urine of the lynx.


To a layperson garnet is a low-priced red gemstone; however garnets have been valued as gemstones for more than 5000 years. Garnet was used by Egyptian’s jewellery as early as 3100BC. Also garnet has been rose-cut to be used as Bohemian garnet since Victorian era.
Garnet is the name for a group of minerals that have common properties. All family members have very similar structures, but varying enormously in chemical composition and properties. The name Garnet is derived from the Latin granatum, meaning seeds of pomegranate, referring to the red color of a Pyrope and Almandine varieties. Garnet family is divided to two sub-groups, Pyralspite which is Calcium-free garnet and Ugrandite which is Calcium rich garnet. Almandine (iron-aluminium silicate), Pyrope (magnesium-aluminium silicate), and Spessartine (manganese-aluminium silicate) are the main members of Pyralspite sub-group and Grossular (Calcium-aluminium silicate), Andradite (calcium-iron silicate) and, Uvarovite (calcium-chromium silicate) are the members of Ugrandite sub-group.
Garent is a hard and durable gemstone therefore it is suitable for most type of jewellery especially rings and necklaces. Pyrope and almandine garnets (especially with rose-cut) are used for antique jewellery restoration, especially that of Victorian Jewellery. 
As all the garnet gemstone family members are both hard and durable they can be cleaned in ultrasonic cleaning machine, any commercial jewellery cleaner or mild soap and water using brush. The gemstone should be rinsed and dried thoroughly after cleaning.


 Corundum is best known for its gem varieties, Ruby and Sapphire. Ruby and Sapphire are scientifically the same mineral, but just differ in color. Ruby is the red variety, and Sapphire is the variety that encompasses all other colors, although the most popular and valued color of Sapphire is blue. Sapphire is also only used to describe the gem variety; otherwise it is simply called Corundum.
Corundum is a very hard, tough, and stable mineral. For all practical purposes, it is the hardest mineral after Diamond, making it the second hardest mineral. It is also unaffected by acids and most environments. Translucent brown Corundum and Emery are the most common forms of Corundum. These are fairly common forms, and due to their great hardness and prevalence are the most favorable abrasives. The industrial term "emery" describing Corundum abrasives is derived from the variety Emery which is mined specifically for its use as an abrasive. Erosion may cause Emery to crumble and form sand, which are sometimes called "black sands."
Corundum is easily synthesized, and many Corundum abrasives are synthetic. Synthetic gems are also easily created by adding traces of certain color producing elements to the Corundum solution, and letting the solution solidify into a boule, or synthetic, unprocessed "mineral" with a particular shape. This process is called the Verneuil process.
Natural Ruby and Sapphire gemstones may have their color artificially enhanced or deepened through heat treatment when used as gems. Some dark blue stones from certain localities may also be made a bright blue desirable color.


 Quartz is one of the most common and varied minerals on earth, and its abundant colors produce many gemstone types. Amethyst and Citrine are the most popular and valuable gem varieties of Quartz, but other forms also make important gemstones. Chalcedony describes any form of Quartz that is microcrystalline, in compact form without any visible crystals. Chalcedony also has several varieties used as gemstones, most notably Agate, Carnelian, Tiger's Eye, and Chrysoprase
All forms of Quartz are used as gemstones, and they are all affordable. They are cut into various gemstone cuts and cabochons, and used in all forms of jewelry. Lesser quality stones are often tumbled for use in bracelets, necklaces, and as costume jewelery. Large spheres and carvings are also cut from all the Quartz forms.  Due to its abundance and lack of luster, Rock Crystal is not commonly cut into gemstones, although some very large spheres and sculptures are carved from it. Small crystals of Rock Crystal are sometime worn as pendants, sometimes being polished and smoothed, and sometimes in their entirely natural crystal form.
Amethyst may be heat treated to deepen the purple color. Most gem Citrine is produced by heat treating Amethyst, and the green Quartz known as Prasiolite or "Green Amethyst" is also produced by heating Amethyst from specific localities. 
Certain colorful Quartz types not found in nature are produced through irradiation. Some forms of Quartz with a multicolored rainbow effect are synthetically treated to produce their color effect using film deposition. The process involves bonding an extremely thin metallic film layer over the top of the gemstone, so that the interesting color effects are reflected from the crown. Some vividly colorful forms of Quartz are synthetic grown using the hydrothermal method.
Quartz is extremely common and is found in numerous localities throughout the world. The important sources are far too numerous to mention, though in general the most prolific countries that produce Quartz gemstones are Brazil, Madagascar, India, and the U.S. (Arkansas). Specific sources for the popular Quartz varieties are described on their dedicated pages. 


 Larimar is a blue variety of the mineral Pectolite. Pectolite is not a rare mineral and is found throughout the world, but the exquisite sea-blue color exhibited in the Larimar variety is very unique, and only comes from one place in the world. It is found only in a limited deposit in the Dominican Republic, and is virtually the only gemstone to be found in the entire Caribbean. Its lovely sea-blue color is very reminiscent of the Caribbean seas.
Pectolite is usually a soft and very delicate mineral composed of dense radiating fibers, but sometimes the fibers are tough and interlocking and make it very solid. The Larimar variety is of the tough type hence its ability to withstand carving and faceting. 
There is a legend that Larimar was originally discovered in 1916 and its locality subsequently forgotten. In 1974, Norman Rilling, a visiting member of the US Peace Corps, found the locality together with Miguel Méndez, a Dominican native. Together they named this stone "Larimar", which is a combination of "Larrisa" (Méndez's daughter's name) and "mar" (sea in Spanish). Due to its scarcity and limited source, Larimar is difficult to obtain outside of the Caribbean. 
The color of Larimar is caused by copper inclusions. Its color is rarely solid; it is almost always blue with interconnecting white lines and rough circles. A radiating pattern of crystal needles can often be observed within the Larimar. The blue color can vary in intensity from very light to greenish-blue to deep sky blue. Deeper blue colors and less white are more desirable.
Although Larimar has a very attractive color, it is a soft gemstone and is easily scratched. Its color may also fade upon prolonged exposure to strong sunlight. This, combined with its scarcity, limit its popularity as a mainstream gemstone.
Larimar is mainly used as cabochon and beads, and can be used for rings, earrings, bracelets, and pendants.
Larimar gemstones are not treated and enhanced. Some forms of inexpensive white gemstones are sometimes dyed blue to resemble Larimar.


Topaz makes an ideal gem. A good hardness and desirable colors, combined with a relative abundance and availability makes it one the most popular gemstones. The most valuable colors of Topaz are the golden orange-yellow type, called Imperial Topaz, and the dark pinkish-red and orange-red colors. Value increases with a deepness of color in orange and reddish hues. The most commonly used colors of Topaz in jewelry are the blue types. It was not until this past century that blue Topaz became widespread on the gem market, since virtually all blue gem Topaz is irradiated and heat treated.
Topaz is a fairly common and inexpensive gemstone. It can be found in huge and flawless crystals, which can be faceted into giant gemstones which can weigh thousands of carats. Some of the largest gemstone pieces ever cut were of Topaz.

Topaz is a hard and durable gemstone, and will not dissolve in most chemical solvents. However, it does have perfect cleavage which can make it prone to chipping or forming flaws if banged hard. Topaz is also a pleochroic gemstone and can have varied color intensity when viewed at different angles. Due to its good cleavage and pleocroic nature, care must be exercised when faceting Topaz gemstones.

Blue Topaz does occur in nature, but is rare and almost always lightly color. Most if not all blue Topaz used in jewelry has been irradiated and heat treated to artificially create the blue color. The original stones are colorless or lightly colored, and the radiation process gives them their deep sky-blue colors. In a few rare circumstances, some forms of blue Topaz tend to slightly fade in exposure to sunlight after extended periods of time.
Topaz of all different colors are used in jewelry, in rings, earrings, necklaces, pendants, and bracelets. The blue, orange, and pink colors are most often cut as gemstones, and colorless Topaz is becoming increasingly popular as an inexpensive Diamond simulant. Gigantic gems and faceted spheres are cut from huge flawless crystals, and these make exquisite and exclusive collectors items. Topaz is rarely cut into cabochons.
Topaz is the traditional birthstone for November.

With the exception of Imperial Topaz, all the variety names below are trade names that were coined by dealers in the jewelry trade. These names have become widely used despite them being names made up by jewelers in modern times. There are also several additional made-up variety names sometimes given to different forms and colors of Topaz. The list below only describes those names that have become terms used extensively in the jewelry market.

  • London Blue Topaz  -  Topaz with a deep sky-blue color. It is darker in tone than Swiss Blue Topaz.
  • Mystic Topaz -  Multicolored Topaz with a rainbow-like color effect. Its color is synthetically colored by film deposition of an extremely thin metallic layer over the top of the gemstone
  • Swiss Blue Topaz - Topaz with a sky-blue color. It is lighter in tone than London Blue Topaz.



Precious opal is hydrated silica, containing 3 to 25 percent water molecules. It is therefore non-crystalline, unlike most other gemstones, and may eventually dry out and crack. The body color of opal is largely due to the presence of small amounts of impurities such as iron oxides and other substances. Opal sometimes referred as “nature’s firework”. As the light passes through microscopic spheres of silica inside opal, play of color is produced due to diffraction to the colors of spectrum. The size of the spheres and their geometric packing determine the color and quality of diffracted light. due to similarity of color, opal can be confused with ammolie, labradorite, and moonstone.
Opal gemstone comes in several varieties, some are considered as expensive and some inexpensive. Opal varieties include, 1) Black opal, is one of the most beautiful and valuable varieties and only occurs in Australia and North America. It has a dark gray or black body color in which a fiery display of glowing dark green to gold, blue, black, pale violet can be seen. The black color is due to presence of ferric oxide. 2) white opal, 3) fire opal, the color of fire opal can range from yellow to red. Good quality stones should be transparent with a vitreous luster and they should not be milky or opaque. 4) Harlequin opal, is transparent to translucent precious opal with mosaic like patches of color. 5) Opal cat’s-eyes, it is possible for opal to have chatoyancy, a cat’s-eye effect that is caused by the reflection of light by parallel fibers or channels.6) Hydrophane or water opal is one of the most curious varieties of opal. It is cloudy, white or light colored translucent to opaque variety of common opal. 7) Girasol opal is a pale blue or white transparent to translucent variety of precious opal which shows a bluish or reddish play of colors. 
There are various treatments used to enhance the beauty of opals. The most common treatments darken the body color, making the play of color slightly more noticeable. Darkening of opal is done by two main methods 1) exposing opal to smoke, due to porous nature of opal, carbon in the smoke penetrates the opal's surface and causes the light opal to appear dark 2) placing opal in sugar liquid, sugar is soaked into opal's surface and the carbonized in acid to impart a thin dark layer. Also some opals are coated with oil, wax or plastic to improve their appearance. All of these treatments only affect a thin outer layer of the gem’s surface and, therefore, are not considered stable.
As opals are slightly softer than most transparent gemstones, they are best suited for wear in earrings and pendants.  It also can be used in a rings or bracelets but special attention should be paid to ensure the stone is well protected. 
water content of the beautiful opal gemstone can sometimes dry out and crack with time. For this reason uncut opal is stored in water. As opal is a relatively soft stone care must be taken when grinding and polishing opals for use in jewellery. Opal can be destroyed by acid or strong alkalis. Opal is very sensitive to changes in temperature, therefore cleaning in hot ultrasonic or steam cleaners will damage the gemstone. Also, opal jewellery should be stored separately from other gemstones, this will reduce the chance of accidental scratches. 


Pearls are formed in shellfish – especially oysters and mussels and rarely by some snails – as a natural defence against an irritant, such as piece of grit. Layers of aragonite, known as nacre (or sometimes it is called mother-of-pearl), are secreted around the irritant, and gradually build up to form the solid pearl. The derivation of the name pearl is uncertain, but may be from a type of shell (Latin- perna) or from its spherical shape (Latin-Sphaerula). The size of pearls varies between a pin head and a pigeon’s egg. Hope pearl is the largest pearl ever found. It is 5cm long and weights 454ct; it is in the South Kensington Museum in London.
The increased demand for Pearls has led to their cultivation in large quantities. Such cultured pearls are not an imitation, but a natural product which has been produced with human assistance. Today cultured pearls amount to 90 percent of the total pearl trade. There are cultured-pearl farms in the ocean as well as in freshwater rivers. The principle behind pearl culturing is simple. Humans 
cause the mollusc to produce a pearl by insertion of a foreign body. Chinese for the first time inserted small objects to the inner wall of a mollusc shell in 13th century so that they would covered with pearls material, however they were not successful. Japanese, in 1920, were the people who successfully made cultured pearls.
There is little or no difference in the appearance of natural and cultured pearls. Differentiation between them is difficult. Their density can help, as it is greater than 2.73 in the case of most cultured pearls, while the density of natural pearls is usually lower. Pearls were once thought to be the tears of the gods. 
Natural pearls have been harvested from the Persian Gulf, the Gulf of Manaar (Indian Ocean), and the Red Sea for thousands of years. The coasts of Polynesia and Australia produce mainly cultured pearls. Freshwater pearls occur in the rivers of Scotland, Ireland, France, Austria, Germany and Mississippi (USA). 
Natural pearls have been harvested from the Persian Gulf, the Gulf of Manaar (Indian Ocean), and the Red Sea for thousands of years. The coasts of Polynesia and Australia produce mainly cultured pearls. Freshwater pearls occur in the rivers of Scotland, Ireland, France, Austria, Germany and Mississippi (USA). 
Almost all pearls are bleached to improve the color matching. Furthermore pearls can be dyed to almost any color; bright pinks, purples, greens, yellows, and more exotic colors, such as bronze or black, can be achieved through irradiation. If there is a crack in the skin of a pearl, there is a delicate operation, called skinning the pearl. During this operation the crack is removed by removing the outer layer of the pearl if the crack is not so deep. 
Pearl is a relatively soft (organic) gemstone therefore it should be used in protected designs. For instance, pearls are mainly used to make earrings or necklaces as they do experience a great deal of stress. Pearls set in rings, however, are subject to abrasions in daily wear, as well as soaps and lotions that can cause discoloration. Therefore, design a ring so that the metal rises above the pearl and blocks some of the potential impacts. 

Cultured pearls

Pearls jewellery should not be cleaned in ultrasonic machine as it can damage the nacre, especially around drill holes. Also, the chemicals used in the ultrasonic can attack the conchiolin layer, which can cause cracking over time. Pearls are very sensitive to the high temperatures (as it can damage organic proteins) therefore; pearls should not be cleaned in steam cleaners. The best way to clean pearls is in clear water with a soft brush followed by a thorough rinse. Pearls should not come into contact with cosmetics, hairspray, perfume therefore pearl jewellery should be the last thing you put on before you go out and the first thing you take off when you get home. 


Sapphire the most valuable blue gem stone belong to corundum family. Sapphire with Ruby (as they come from the same family of corundum) is the second hardest substance on earth. While sapphire has become the ultimate blue stone, it actually comes in wide range of colors, including brown, yellow, pink, orange, purple, and colorless. The blue color in sapphire is due to different trace combinations of Titanium and Iron. The name sapphire is derived from Greek word sapphiros meaning blue stone.
The earliest records of mining sapphire are similar to those of ruby: about 3500 years ago in Burma and over 2500 years ago in Sri Lanka. Early sapphire mining, like today, focused on searching gem gravels or placer deposits eroded from marbles, intrusive igneous rocks, or other sources.
Most sapphires contain inclusion. These inclusions may appear as clouds, silk fibers, feathers which are visible to the naked eye. Therefore almost all the sapphires on the market have been heat treated to improve its appearance. Heat-treated sapphires are very stable in the gained color.
Sapphire is a desirable gemstone for jewelers due to its excellent color, hardness, durability, and luster. Sapphire gemstone is suitable for all kinds of jeweleries. It is a very popular gemstone use in engagement rings but it is widely used in brooches, pins, pendants, and necklaces. Synthetic sapphire is also widely used in jewellery. These sapphires are usually made by flam-fusion technique in which powdered corundum is melted at very high temperatures with different amounts of iron and titanium to achieve different colors. 
The star of India, the largest natral sapphire discovered (563 carats) is now hosed in the New York Museum of Natural History. This stone was extracted from the Earth in Sri Lanka.
As Sapphire is a hard and durable gemstone it can be cleaned using an ultrasonic cleaning machine, any commercial jewelry cleaner or mild soap and lukewarm water using a soft brush. Be sure to rinse and dry your jewelry thoroughly after cleaning.
Birthstone: September
Zodiac sign: Libra


Tanzanite is a rare and beautiful gemstone that belongs to Zoisite family. It is relatively newcomer to the gemstones market. It was first discovered in 1967 in Meralani Hills, in the Lelatema District of Tanzania and it is the only place where it is found. In good quality the color is ultramarine to sapphire blue due to existence of Vanadium (v) element. Tanzanite can be confused with other gemstones such as amethyst, iolite, sapphire, and spinel. As the popularity of tanzanite has led to the production of very convincing glass imitations therefore if you are buying an expensive tanzanite gemstone it is very important to have the gemstone tested by a laboratory or buy it from a reputable dealer.
Heat treatment is done for almost all tanzanite to bring out its rich blue, violet and purple hues. Also heating minimized the yellowish and brown tints. It is worth noting that heating is performed in a special furnace where the stones are placed in layers of sand or white cement and heated to temperatures of 900-1250°F. Darker and larger stones require higher temperatures for longer period of time.
Tanzanite is more than a thousand times rarer than diamond. Its great beauty and rarity make it an expensive gemstone. Tanzanite was introduced to the fine-gem market by Tiffany & Co in late 1960s. Tiffany coined the name Tanzanite as the thought it sounded better than blue Zoisite due to similarity of Zoisite to the word “suicide.” Tanzanite is not a durable gemstone therefore when mounted in a ring or bracelet special attention should be paid to ensure the stone is well-protected. Some traders advise that tanzanite is better kept for earrings, necklaces and pendants.
As Tanzanite is a relatively soft gemstone it is not suitable for everyday wear, also for the same reason tanzanite should be stored separately from other gemstone. As tanzanite can be very brittle it can chip if exposed to sudden changes in temperature. Tanzanite should never be cleaned with an ultrasonic or steam machine. Tanzanite can be cleaned with most any commercial jewellery cleaner or mild soap and lukewarm water using a soft brush. Be sure to rinse and dry thoroughly after cleaning.


Turquoise is a phosphate mineral which most commonly forms as minute crystals, and occurs chiefly as veins and nodules in rocks in arid regions. Its superb blue color is due to presence of copper (Cu) and occasional traces of iron (Fe) causes the greenish tint. Bluish-green stones are less valued than the sky blue variety. Turquoise is reputed to have been derived from the French pierre turquoise or in old French tourques, which means ‘Turkey stone’, not because the stone came from Turkey, but because the Persian material entered to Europe by way of Turkey. Turquoise was one of the first gems to be mined. It was known by 3000BC and possibly prior to the first Dynasty of ancient Egypt.  Turquoise can be confused with, amazonite, odontolite, lazulite, variscite, and hemimorphie.

Turquoise Gemstone is formed by the action of percolating ground-waters in aluminium-bearing rocks containing copper. The finest Turquoise Gemstone comes from Nishabur area in Iran. However the Iranian material virtually mined out now and so is very rare and valuable. Now USA produces the best Turquoise. It is also found in Afghanistan, Australia, Brazil, Chile, China, Mexico, Russia, and Tanzania.

Unfortunately, much of the turquoise that comes out of the mines is pale and has a rather greenish tinge which is not as attractive. Therefore, depending on the quality of Turquoise Gemstone three main techniques is used to bring the quality of the gemstone up to be acceptable levels. These are 1) reconstructing or pressing turquoise; turquoise powder and small chips are bonded with liquid plastic resin, dyed and then baked, 2) stabilizing and coating turquoise; due to its porous nature it is hard to work with therefore it is stabilized or coated by soaking the rough material in an artificial resin (wax or plastic, the plastic-impregnated stones are probably permanently improved, but waxing is less permanent), and 3) enhancing turquoise; this means dying or improving the color of turquoise.

Turquoise gemstone has been used for jewellery from remote antiquity.  Turquoise was used by Aztecs in mosaic work on ritual masks and other ornaments. Today, turquoise gemstones are cut cabochon in round or oval from and are polished with Linde A on leather. Due to its low specific gravity, turquoise feels light in weight; therefore it is ideal for large jewellery pieces. 

As Turquoise is relatively soft gemstone it should be stored separately in a cool, dark box in acid-free tissue papers. Turquoise gemstone should not come into contact with cosmetics, hairspray, perfume or household chemicals. Due to its soft nature ultrasonic cleaning and commercial chemical cleaners should not be used to clean this gem stone. Turquoise gemstone should not be exposed to the sudden change of temperature as will damage the gemstone by fading the color.


This unique gem already refers to its origin in the name: The Sultans, rulers of the Ottoman Empire, serve as namesake for this miracle of nature, which shows a truly stately face. The gemmological name "Diaspor" comes from the Greek word "Diasporea" for "dispersion". In addition, the Zultanite is also known as "Empholith", "Kayserit" and "Tanatarit".
Zultanite is an extremely rare, transparent gemstone from the Diaspore mineral family, which can show the colours yellow, cognac, pink or red. The deeper reds are due to a higher concentration of manganese. Like the Alexandrite, the Zultanite shows an impressive Colour change.
High-quality Zultanite is currently mined at only one place in the world: in the heights of the Anatolian Mountains, 1,200 meters above sea level. The mine is located near the Turkish village of Selimiye. The mining of this gem began there in the mid-80s.
Although the mineral Diaspore was discovered as early as 1801 in the mountains of the Ural Mountains in Russia, faceted gemstones could not be acquired until the 1970s, plus this mineral was mainly very poor quality. In order to be able to part with this negative evaluation, the high-quality abstracts were finally renamed "Zultanite" and then flourished in the international market.
The beauty and fascination of this gemstone lies in its colours, its exceptional brilliance and its chandelier. The Zultanite changes its colour from kiwi green (in sunlight) to raspberry red (under artificial light and candlelight) depending on the light sources. It can also produce khaki green, cognac pink, pink champagne tones and ginger tones. Unlike other colour change gemstones, the intensity of the colour change in this gem does not depend on the intensity of the base colour.
Zultanite is perfectly fissile in one direction, making it one of the hardest-to-grind gems in the world. Therefore, it is extremely important for the gemstone sander to align the gemstone during grinding to minimize cleavage and, at the same time, select the correct angle for maximizing the colour change. When grinding, about 98% of the raw gemstone is lost, thus Zultanite in larger sizes are extremely rare.

Occasionally, the cat's eye effect, also known as "chatoyance," appears as a single bright strip of light on the surface of the gem, resembling the slit-shaped eye of a cat. This effect results from the light reflection of long, needle-shaped inclusions, which are arranged in parallel.
Be sure to protect Zultanite from chemicals, heat, and extreme temperature changes. Always store your Zultanite carefully to prevent scratches and clean it only with mild soap and lukewarm water, in case of heavy soiling use a soft toothbrush under light pressure. After cleaning, rinse your jewellery with lukewarm water and gently dry it with a soft cloth or a decorative cloth. Never subject your Zultanite to steam or ultrasonic cleaning.

Summary: First collected in the late 70s, Zultanite is now mined commercially. A rare colour change variety of the mineral Diaspore coloured by manganese, Zultanite hails from a sole deposit, a remote mountainous area in Anatolia, Turkey. Much like Alexandrite, Zultanite’s name also has a royal connection, being named by Murat Akgun in honour of the 36 sultans who ruled the Ottoman Empire in Anatolia in the late 13th century. Noted for its attractive earthy hues, Zultanite’s colour change is not limited to two basic colours, exhibiting a range of greens, purplish-reds and yellows in different light sources. Zultanite changes from kiwi greens with canary flashes under sunny skies, to rich champagnes in traditional indoor lighting and raspberry hues in candlelight.


Ruby belongs to Corundum (aluminium oxide) family. This family includes several of world’s most precious gemstones including ruby and sapphire. Ruby gemstone is the second hardest natural substance after Diamond with hardness of 9 on Moh's scale. Ruby occurs as tabular (flat), six sided crystals. Rubies come in a variety of colors ranging from purplish red to orangey red. However deep red color with a hint of blue is the most desirable and hence expensive ruby. This expensive ruby is called "pigeon's blood". Ruby owes its magnificent red color to the presence of chromium oxide. If the oxidation valency of the chromium alters, the orange-tinted shades appear. Other nuances of red, such as brownish-red or violet, can be related to traces of iron and vanadium (higher iron causes a brownish ting, while the vanadium content causes the blue tint). Ruby gemstone gets its name from Rubeus, Latin for red.
Below are some famous ruby gemstones for their exceptional beauty:
1) Edward ruby (167ct) in the British Museum of Natural History in London 2) the Reeves ruby (138.7 ct) in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington 3) the Long Star ruby (100ct) in the American Museum of Natural History 4) the Peace ruby (43ct), thus called because it was found in 1919 at the end of World War I.  

The earliest records for the mining of rubies go back over 3500 years in Myanmar and over 2500 years in Sri Lanka. The ancient Hindus considered rubies to be “Ratnaraj” or the “king of precious stones”. Thirteenth- century medical literature from India claims that rubies could cure digestive disorders. Burmese warriors rubies under their skin to protect them in battle.

Ruby gemstone is rare because the chance of formation of ruby is very uncommon. Ruby owes its fascinating pigeon red color to the presence chromium in its structure. Chromium is rarely found in the upper regions of the Earth's crust. In other words, when ruby was formed, the very uncommon chance must have happened that chromium oxide, which usually exist in great depths in the earth, was present at exactly the right time when the alumina was crystallizing. Gem-quality Ruby is very rare in their natural conditions and wide range of mined rubies has inclusions. However these inclusions are not indicative of lower quality, but show the difference between natural and synthetic gemstone. There are several methods to enhance rubies 1)  routinely heat treatment of the gemstone is needed to improve its appearance. Most of the natural rubies are found with "silk" inclusions, heat treatment is used to melt these silk inclusions to improve the clarity of the gemstone. Heat treatment also gives the gemstone deeper red color. Heat treatments are considered as extremely stable, 2) fracture filling is a common practice that reduces the visibility of flaws by making the fracture non-reflective, 3) Ruby is commonly diffusion treated in the presence of berylium, this means low quality rubies are heated over prolonged period of time in presence of berylium to enhance the color of the gemstone. 

Ruby has been used for centuries in jewellery industry due to its magnificent red color. Due to its magnificent, intense red color, ruby is one of the most expensive gemstone in jewellery industry.  As it is a hard gemstone it can be used in all kinds of jewelry including rings, earrings, and necklaces. Jewelers often mix ruby with diamond and emerald to create stunning jewellery. Rubies are both a hard and durable and can be cleaned using an ultrasonic cleaning machine, any commercial jewelry cleaner or mild soap and lukewarm water using a soft brush. Rubies with a glass-like residue in surface-reaching fractures should not be cleaned with an ultrasonic or steam machine. Be sure to rinse and dry your jewelry thoroughly after cleaning.

Perfectly flawless rubies are very rare to find. They almost always contain foreign microcrystals. These have either originated from the surrounding matrix, or have grown along with ruby, or have subsequently crystallized out as so-called rutile needles. These rutile needles can forn a fine network, called "silk". Other inclusions are streamers of fluid droplets, which in their delicate, weblike arrangement resemble dragon-fly wings. Inclusions serve as undesirable proofs of origin, this means observing these inclusions can help to distinguish earthborn rubies from the synthetic (man-made) rubies. Nurturing, spiritual wisdom, attainment of values, economic stability, protection from distress.

Zodiac sign: cancer
Birthstone: July
Chakra: Heart, base


Emerald, a transparent, pale-green to sea-green variety of beryl, is chemically a complex silicate of aluminum and beryllium. The colorong agent is chrome, sometimes vanadium. In Sanskrit it is known as Marakatha, in Persian as Zamurrad and in Hindi commonly called as Panna. Its name is derived from the French Esmeraude meaning green gemstone (in other source: The name emerald derives from Greek Smaragdos, which in turn came perhaps from the Persian. It means "green stone"). Nearly all emeralds contain inclusion unlike most other varieties of Beryls. These inclusions in emeralds are sometimes referred to as the jardin. Inclusions are not considered as negative aspects but are instead considered as the character of the stone. Due to very similar color, emerald can be confused with peridot, hiddenite, fluorite, dioptase, diopside, and demantoid. 
Care should be excised when both wearing and cleaning emerald jewellery. The internal features found in most emeralds make them very susceptible to sharp blows and sudden temperature changes. Never clean an emerald with an ultrasonic cleaning machine or a steam cleaner. You should not clean emeralds with strong detergents or most commercial jewellery cleaners. The safest and best way to clean a piece of jewellery containing emeralds is with lukewarm water, a very mild soap and a soft brush. Be sure to rinse and dry your jewelry thoroughly after cleaning.
The finest emeralds are found around Muzo and Chivor in Colombia, where they occur in veins within dark shales and limestones.This source was mined by the ancient Indian civilizations and was the origin of the large emeralds that flooded into Europe and Asia during the sixteenth century, after Spanish conquest. Other sources of emerald includes, Brazil, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Swat in Pakistan, and Russia.  Emerald mining history goes back to 2000 BC. In the history of emeralds the earliest known area where the natural emerald was found is Red sea in Egypt. Later on it was found in Columbian mines. In fact, it is said that the beauty and quality of emerald gemstone that were found in Colombia was such that people at that time preferred suffering torture or even dying than to reveal the source of the mines.
Emerald is mainly used in jewellery like rings, bracelets, nucleus and for preparing the decorative items, etc. High quality emeralds are used as ring stones and beads, while inferior qualities are used for idol carving.
The world's most famous emerald collection is housed in the Republic of Bogota Bank in Colombia. The five largest crystals of this collection weigh between 220 and 1795 carats. Other famous emeralds are kept in Topkapi Palace (Topkapı Dagger which is decorated with 3 large emeralds), the American Museum of Natural History (Patricia Emerald, an uncut 632 carats emerald discovered in 1920s and named after the daughter of the owner of the mine where the stone was discovered),  and the Smithsonian Institution in Washington D.C.
Love, domestic bliss, sensitivity, loyalty, memory, mental capacity, harmony, focus, eliminating negativity.
Birthstone: May
Zodiac sign: Capricorn and Taurus
Chakra: Heart